NumPy & File Handling

Python’s beginner libraries to start Machine Learning.

In this blog, we will look at Python modules(NumPY & File Handling) necessary for Machine Learning. Please try to run the code by yourself for a better understanding.

Prerequisite; Basic knowledge of Python is necessary to understand this blog.

NumPy: NumPY is a Python library used for working with arrays. It also has functions for working in domain of linear algebra, Fourier transform (Fourier Transform is an important image processing tool which is used to decompose an image into its sine and cosine components), and matrices.

NumPy aims to provide an array object that is up to 50x faster than traditional Python lists. The array object in NumPY is called, it provides a lot of supporting functions that make working with `ndarray` very easy. We will also go through few statistics using the NumPy library.

`#Note: Here, I used italic to show output.import numpy as nparr = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])print(arr)#[1 2 3 4 5]#Creating zeros matrixnp.zeros((2,3))#array([[0., 0., 0.],       [0., 0., 0.]])#Creating ones matrixnp.ones(5,dtype=np.int32)#array([1, 1, 1, 1, 1])#Creating matrix with random datanp.random.rand(2, 3)#array([[0.95580785, 0.98378873, 0.65133872],       [0.38330437, 0.16033608, 0.13826526]])#Flattening or changing shape of matrixa = np.ones((2,2))print('Original shape :', a.shape)print('Array :','\n', a)print('Shape after flatten :',b.shape)#Original shape : (2, 2)Array :  [[1. 1.] [1. 1.]]Shape after flatten : (4,)Array :  [1. 1. 1. 1.]#Stacking matrix both horizontally and vertically #Arange create a matrix from given rangea = np.arange(0,5)b = np.arange(5,10)print('Array 1 :','\n',a)print('Array 2 :','\n',b)print('Vertical stacking :','\n',np.vstack((a,b)))print('Horizontal stacking :','\n',np.hstack((a,b)))#Array 1 :  [0 1 2 3 4]Array 2 :  [5 6 7 8 9]Vertical stacking :  [[0 1 2 3 4] [5 6 7 8 9]]Horizontal stacking :  [0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9]#Type of data structure b = np.array([3.1, 11.02, 6.2, 213.2, 5.2])type(b)#numpy.ndarray#data-type of arrayb.dtype #dtype(‘float64’)# Slicing the numpy arrayd = b[1:4]print(d)#[ 11.02   6.2  213.2 ]# Get the number of dimensions of numpy arrayb.ndim           #1# Get the shape/size of numpy arrayb.shape         #(5,)# Get the mean of numpy arraymean = b.mean()    #47.74399999999999# Get the standard deviation of numpy arraystandard_deviation=b.std()          #82.76874134599365# Get the biggest value in the numpy arraymax_b = b.max()    #213.2# Get the smallest value in the numpy arraymin_b = b.min()      #3.1# MATRIX Multiplicationmat1 = ([1, 6, 5],[3 ,4, 8],[2, 12, 3])mat2 = ([3, 4, 6],[5, 6, 7],[6,56, 7])np.dot(mat1, mat2)#array([[ 63, 320,  83],       [ 77, 484, 102],       [ 84, 248, 117]])# Pi is math functionnp.pi3.141592653589793# Calculate the sin of each elementsy = np.sin(b)#array([ 0.04158066, -0.99970171, -0.0830894 , -0.41532536, -0.88345466])# Makeup a numpy array within [-2, 2] and 5 elementsnp.linspace(-2, 2, num=5)  #array([-2., -1.,  0.,  1.,  2.])`

NOTE : In Python, we read images as NumPY arrays, which you will see in further blogs of deep learning.

File Handling in Python: File handling is an important part of any web application. Python has several functions for creating, reading, updating, and deleting files.

`# OPENING FILE#1st Wayfileref = open("olympics.txt", "r") #fileref is reference (opening a file in python3)#opening file via relative path#open('/Users/joebob01/myFiles/allProjects/myData/data2.txt', 'r')#2nd way to open filewith open("olympics.txt","r") as fileref :#lines of code to work on file ....#automatically closes file#READING and processing a file :with open('fname', 'r') as fileref:         # step 1lines = fileref.readlines()           # step 2 - get list of all** lines of text in filefor lin in lines:              # step 3 - for loop to iterate lines#WRITING in a filewith open("filename","w") as f1 :for i in range(5) :sqr = i*if1.write(str(sqr) + "\n")   #also write data as int, float#NOTE : File open in write 'w' mode overwrite the content (i.e deletes past content and save only new content) whereas in append mode 'a' data in added to end of past content#CLOSING a file fileref.close()#closing file is necessary to prevent misuse by other users#DELETING fileimport osif os.path.exists("demofile.txt"):  os.remove("demofile.txt")else:  print("The file does not exist")`

In Data Science we mostly deal with CSV(Comma Separated Values) form of files. We mostly use pandas for opening this CSV form of file and creating a data frame. We will mostly discuss pandas while learning the core Data Science in further blogs.

For further reference, refer to the doc.

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